Thursday, December 23, 2010

The Peace Corps Alum Who Changed American Parenting

Here's another addition to the list of former Peace Corps volunteers who've gone on to do great things: Colorado nurse Ann Moore, an inventor who did a lot to improve American parents' bonding with their young children.


Moore, who grew up in Amish country in Ohio, and her husband Mike worked as Peace Corps volunteers in the African nation of Togo in the early 1960s. Moore saw local women taking their babies with them everywhere -- with infants wrapped in shawls around the mothers' bodies so the women could carry them hands-free. Not only did the arrangement enable the mothers to get around, but both the women and their children seemed calm and content. "I was more intrigued at the result of the emotional well-being of those babies," she explains in a CBS News report.

After the Moores returned to the U.S. and had their first child, Mandy, in 1964, Ann Moore tried to replicate what she had seen women in Togo doing. To the doctors' and nurses' shock, she left the hospital with her baby on her back, wrapped in a shawl she had brought back from Africa.

But Moore had trouble getting used to using the shawl as a baby carrier. "It always seemed to slip down my back," she tells the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation in an interview. She and her mother decided to try improving upon the concept. The result was the first hand-sewn versions of what became the Snugli, which debuted commercially in 1969 and has become standard equipment for American parents.

Initially, however, other Americans who saw Moore wearing her baby on her back as she rode her bicycle, cooked and ran errands were sometimes dismayed. "Some people warned us that we would spoil our baby," she recalls in the Lemelson interview. "But I thought that the more you satisfy a baby's needs in the first year of life, the more the baby will grow up to feel secure and loved."

It was a contrarian approach to the one forced upon previous generations of mothers. ("There is such a thing as too much contact and familiarity between mothers and children, and this is often observable even in infants," an 1893 women's magazine article admonished.)

But Moore's intuition dovetailed with the new concept of attachment parenting championed by pediatrician William Sears, who advised parents to have plenty of contact with their young children and promoted the psychological and developmental benefits of emotional bonding.

After marketing the Snugli, Moore went on create other valuble innovations, such as a backpack for carrying portable oxygen tanks and an ergonomically updated version of her original child-carrier, the Weego.

Source

Birthrate among teens hits record low

The rate at which U.S. women are having babies continued to fall between 2008 and 2009, federal officials reported Tuesday, pushing the teen birthrate to a record low and prompting a debate about whether the drop was caused by the recession, an increased focus on encouraging abstinence, more adolescents using birth control or a combination of those factors.

The birthrate among U.S. girls ages 15 to 19 fell from 41.5 to 39.1 births per 1,000 teens - a 6 percent drop to the lowest rate in the nearly 70 years the federal government has been collecting reliable data, according to a preliminary analysis of the latest statistics.

"The decline in teen births is really quite amazing," said Brady E. Hamilton of the National Center for Health Statistics, who helped perform the analysis.

The decrease marked the second year in a row that the birthrate among teens fell, meaning it has dropped for 16 out of the past 18 years. The 8 percent two-year decline strengthens hopes that an alarming 5 percent increase over the preceding two years was a aberration.

"Just in time for the holidays, a steep decline in teen birth has been announced," said Sarah Brown of the Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancies. "We now are, thankfully, back on track."

The reason for the record low remains unclear, but some experts attributed it to the recession, noting that the overall fertility rate as well as the total number of births in the United States fell a second straight year in 2009 as well.

"I would not have guessed that teenagers would be most responsive to the economic downturn, but maybe we need to revise our stereotypes," said Samuel Preston, a professor of demography at the University of Pennsylvania.

Brown and others agreed:

"When money is very tight, all of us think harder about taking risks, expanding our families, taking on new responsibilities," Brown said. "Now, I know that teens may not be as savvy about money as those in their 20s and 30s - they probably don't stress over 401 (k)s like the rest of us - but many teens live with financially stressed adults, and they see neighbors and older friends losing jobs and even losing houses. So they, too, feel the squeeze and may be reacting to it by being more prudent..."

That fits with research released in the spring by the Pew Research Center, which found that states hit hardest by the recession experienced the biggest drops in births.

Others suggested that the intense concern about the 2005 to 2007 increases and the attention it generated--including Bristol Palin's campaign against teen pregnancy, MTV's "16 and Pregnant" series and Washington's birth control-vs-abstinence debate - may have gotten through to teens. Some data, for example, indicate that use of birth-control pills and other forms of contraception among teen girls is increasing.

"Although the data are preliminary, it looks like improved contraceptive use is again driving the decline in teen birthrates," said John Santelli of Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

The general fertility rate fell from 68.6 births per 1,000 females ages 15 to 44 to 66.7 in 2009, and the total number of births fell from 4,247,694 to 4,131,019, That direction appears to be continuing into 2010, according to early statistics collected between January and June. The overall drop pushed the fertility rate to about 2.01, a 4 percent decrease from 2008.

That is the largest decline since 1973, and it put the total fertility rate below the level needed to sustain the size of the population for the second year after being above the replacement rate in 2006 and 2007 for the first time in 35 years.

The birthrate for women in their early 20s fell 7 percent, which is the largest decline for this age group since 1973, according to the report. The rates also fell for women in their late 20s and 30s, although it continued to increase for women in their early 40s.

The Obama administration has launched a $110 million teen pregnancy prevention effort that will support a range of programs, including those that teach about the risks of specific sexual activities and the benefits of contraception and others that focus primarily on encouraging teens to delay sex.

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Desperate breast-feeding moms reveal answers

All newborn babies cry, but Anika Reese seemed to be in a category all her own. She screamed in pain nearly all the time, grabbing her own little cheeks so forcefully she sometimes drew blood.

Her mother, Suzanne, describes Anika's first four months as "living in hell with an angel."

Reese noticed her baby's stomach was swollen and her poops were green and frothy. Several friends and family members suggested it might be a problem with Reese's breast milk, and urged her to give Anika formula instead. But Reese was "hell-bent" on nursing and refused to stop.

While it's not easy to overcome the hurdles of early breast-feeding -- whether it's sore nipples, a screaming baby, or a low milk supply -- Reese managed to do it.

When she noticed Anika's belly swollen and strange, frothy green poops, Reese called lactation consultants, who told her all babies have gas and to be patient. Then, when Anika was 7 weeks old, Reese noticed blood in her daughter's stool.

The Reeses raced to the emergency room near their home in Ramona, California. Doctors gave Anika a barium enema to get a good look at her intestines.

The test showed Anika's colon was normal. The Reeses then took Anika to a pediatric gastroenterologist, who advised Suzanne to stop eating foods that might be bothering Anika. But Suzanne was already down to a diet of chicken, beef, sweet potatoes, and rice -- there was nothing more she could cut out.

Feeling like "a total failure," Reese still wasn't ready to give up nursing her baby. She called another lactation consultant, who listened patiently to her story and immediately offered this tip: pump some milk, throw it away, and put Anika to her breast.

"OVERNIGHT, we had a new baby!" Reese recalled in an e-mail. "INCREDIBLE! We were utterly relieved -- to the point of tears."

The lactation consultant explained Reese was producing too much foremilk, which is full of sugar and can irritate a baby's delicate gut if she gets too much of it. By pumping off the foremilk and getting rid of it, Reese was giving Anika more hindmilk, which has significantly less sugar.

"I was also utterly angry that we had to go through all of this when it was such a simple fix," Reese says.

Reese found when it comes to breast-feeding, sometimes the experts who should know the answers -- pediatricians, lactation counselors -- don't.

Find the perfect latch: Toni Taber of Los Angeles

I was told breast-feeding shouldn't be painful, but it was. Eventually, painful became excruciating. I cried while I breast-fed; I bled. The doctor said my daughter, Molly, wasn't gaining enough weight, and told me to feed her on a schedule and record how much she ate. I pumped around the clock, and could only sleep 90 minutes at a time, because I had to pump to keep up with her needs. Once, I was so tired, my husband fed her formula. I cried. How could I fail?

I finally saw a lactation consultant who figured out that Molly wasn't getting enough milk because she wasn't latched on properly. The consultant literally took me in her hands and showed me how to latch the baby on. She taught me to take the baby off over and over until she was latched properly. She showed me to put one finger under her chin to feel her chin moving and look for a wiggle at her ears when she ate, and listen to her swallow. All of these signs I never knew about. When I went home, I was alone with my baby girl, and she was hungry. I was afraid to try on my own. What if I fail again? But I latched her on, and it was beautiful. She was so happy. It was amazing! Nine years later, and I remember that feeling. She nursed for over a year, and I've since nursed three more children, including the one I'm nursing now.

Use a little lanolin: Laura Wellington of Ridgewood, New Jersey
I don't know any woman who would tell you, no matter how many children they have, that breast-feeding is "easy" in the beginning. Quite frankly, it's a nightmare and does not come "naturally" to mother or child (sorry for the disillusionment). I have five children and the initial stages of breast-feeding sent me gritting my teeth with each one of them. So swollen were my breasts and cracked my nipples, I wanted to cry.

With my oldest child, Ian, I was exhausted, feeling like a failure and the worst mother in the world in trying to do what I believe is the best for my baby. Thankfully, it was a man (my brother-in-law, Mark) who talked some sense into me, recounting the story of how his wife experienced the same thing. He told me she literally wanted to kill him every time their daughter clamped down on her nipple. But then, she learned the value of lanolin to help soothe cracked nipples as well as her own breast milk's healing properties (a little rubbed on her nipple after a feeding coupled by air drying... it made a difference). I think the biggest relief that made all the difference in my continuing was knowing I wasn't alone. Believe me, prior to Mark's conversation, I bought a tub of baby formula that stared me down for days. In the end, I absolutely adored the bonding that I felt with each of my children once I got over the initial hump.

Breast-feeding is like sex: Candace Chang of Philadelphia
As "natural" as breast-feeding is, I quickly learned that neither my baby nor I knew what we were doing. We had latching issues from the very beginning. Instead of really taking in the nipple and areola, she'd kind of suck it in like a straw. For the first time in a long time, I felt truly dumb. How could I not know how to do this?
C'mon, a baby opens up and sucks on the nipple. What could be so freaking difficult about that?

Apparently it is, and the hospital lactation consultants (AMEN to them) helped us sort out our latch issues, but the very best advice on breast-feeding I received was from my pediatrician. He equated breast-feeding with sex, meaning the more relaxed I was, the better it would be. He told me to stop thinking about it, just do it, and it would all sort itself out in the end.

My girl was exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of her life, and I attribute much of our breast-feeding success to our pediatrician. I was encouraged to call the office, e-mail him, etc. E-mail! It's the best thing a doctor could have given me. The fact that my daughter's pediatrician respected my wish to breast-feed and tried very hard to calm my nerves is something for which I will be forever grateful.




Wednesday, December 22, 2010

David Schwimmer to Become a Dad!

Friends actor David Schwimmer and his wife Zoe Buckman are expecting! The couple reportedly "couldn't be more thrilled."

Buckman, a photographer, and Schwimmer, 44, met in London in 2007, and announced their engagement in March 2010.

 Speaking to PEOPLE in 2006 about his desire to start a family, the former Friends star said he was eager to be a dad – in due time.

"I think it's gonna have to wait until I settle down and have a family," he said at the time. "It will happen when it feels right. Maybe part of me is waiting for myself to slow down a little and be ready to stay put. I'm confident it's gonna happen."

Source

Moms who take folic acid, iron have smarter kids

Children in rural Nepal whose mothers were given iron and folic acid supplements during pregnancy were smarter, more organized and had better fine motor skills than children whose mothers did not get them, U.S. researchers said on Tuesday.

They said ensuring that pregnant women get this basic prenatal care could have a big effect on the educational futures of children who live in poor communities where iron deficiency is common.

"Iron is essential for the development of the central nervous system," said Parul Christian, an expert in international health at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, whose study appears in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting 2 billion people, according to the World Health Organization.

Early iron deficiency can interfere with nerve development, biochemistry and metabolism, hampering both intellectual and fine motor development.

Christian's team studied 676 school-age children whose mothers had been in a clinical trial in which some got iron and folic acid supplements and other nutrients while they were pregnant. About 80 percent of the children -- aged 7 to 9 -- were enrolled in school.

"We had the opportunity to follow the offspring of women who had participated in a randomized trial of iron and folic acid and other micronutrients to assess neurocognitive function and outcomes," Christian said in a telephone interview.

"What we showed is prenatal iron and folic acid supplementation had a significant impact on the offspring's intellectual level and motor ability and ability during school age, which was a very exciting finding," she said.

"It had an impact across a range of function, including intellectual function, executive function and fine motor function," factors that could affect a child's later academic success, Christian said.

She said many children in poor communities would benefit from better prenatal programs that include the low-cost nutritional supplements.

"These results speak to a large swath of people residing in that part of the world. Iron and folic acid deficiency are very common," she said.

The World Health Organization estimates that in developing countries, every other pregnant woman is anemic and about 40 percent of preschool children are anemic.

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Source

Women war veterans prone to mental health problems during pregnancy

A new study has revealed that the stress associated with military service in a war zone may later contribute to an increased risk of mental health problems if a woman veteran becomes pregnant.

Pregnancy among women veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan appears to increase their risk for mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Because the hormonal and physiological changes that accompany pregnancy can bring on or worsen various mental health conditions, it is important to understand the effects of military service on a pregnant woman's mental health status and how it might affect pregnancy outcomes.

Kristin Mattocks of the Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, CT) and colleagues reviewed the records of more than 43,000 women veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and completed their military service between 2001 and 2008.

The authors emphasized the importance of identifying and providing appropriate diagnostic and treatment services for this at-risk population.

"With the increased number of women serving in the military, it is important that we understand their unique health issues such as mental health problems during pregnancy," said Susan G. Kornstein, executive director of the Virginia Commonwealth University Institute for Women's Health, Richmond, VA.

The study is published online in Journal of Women's Health. (ANI)

Source

Ali Larter Gives Birth to a Son

Christmas arrived a bit early for Ali Larter!

The Heroes actress and actor Hayes MacArthur welcomed a healthy boy early Monday morning in Los Angeles, her rep tells UsMagazine.com. Mom and child are now resting comfortably.

First-time parents Larter, 34, and Perfect Couples actor MacArthur, 33, have named their son Theodore Hayes MacArthur.

"He's our perfect Christmas present," the new mom and dad gush to Us.
After seven years of dating, Larter and MacArthur wed in Kennebunkport, Maine in August 2009. She was eager to start a family way back in 2007, telling Cosmopolitan: "I told my boyfriend after three weeks that I wanted to marry him and that we could do it tomorrow...I look forward to that time when I'm home with babies."

Larter accidentally revealed her child's gender in September while promoting Resident Evil: Afterlife 3D -- referring to her baby-to-be as a "he" during a Fox News interview.

She added at the time: "I'm just super pregnant...Each moment I want to take off another piece of clothing."

Source

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Tips for holiday travel during pregnancy

A leading women's health expert and Certified Nurse Midwife lends advice on holiday travel for pregnant women:

Keep your insurance card and important phone numbers with you. If you go into labor or your water breaks while out of town, call your midwife or physician so that they can direct you to the appropriate hospital and have your medical records faxed to the new doctor.

BY PLANE. If you are considering plane travel, discuss your plans with your midwife or physician ahead of time to determine if it is a safe choice. Check with your airline to see if they require a letter of medical or obstetrical clearance if you are close to your due date. Most airlines, as well as midwives and physicians, strongly discourage flying after 35 weeks of pregnancy, when the mother is full term. Onboard, walk up and down the aisle every 45 minutes to an hour. Eat, drink and use the restroom continuously.

BY CAR. When traveling by car, keep your seat belt on at all times. The proper way to wear a seat belt during pregnancy is lap belt under the abdomen; the shoulder strap should be worn coming down between the breasts, securely fastened on the side. Stop the car every hour or so to walk and get the blood flowing in your legs, as well eat, drink and use the restroom.

Wear support stockings (also known as compression stockings), especially during travel. Sitting for a long period of time can put pregnant women at risk of blood clot formation. Support stockings can greatly reduce this risk.

It is ideal to be near your midwife or physician, and the hospital you plan to deliver at throughout your entire pregnancy. If a woman goes into preterm labor (between 24-34 weeks), the baby's health will depend on the available technology and a qualified neonatal staff.

After 35 weeks, which is clinically full term, you are better off staying home - eating, drinking, resting and keeping track of your baby's movements - rather than traveling. Better choice: Invite your friends and relatives to join you.

To learn more about Elizabeth Stein visit www.AskYourMidwife.com.

Source

1 in 3 women not screened for gestational diabetes

Thousands of U.S. women may develop diabetes during pregnancy but go undiagnosed and untreated, putting their health and that of their babies at risk.
 
A study of almost a million women suggests that about a third of pregnant women are not screened for gestational diabetes, and that the number now reported with the condition - about 135,000 cases a year, according to the American Diabetes Association- would almost double if recently proposed international screening recommendations, still under discussion, are confirmed in the coming months.

Recent research indicates that a baby is at higher risk for health problems — premature birth and birth defects, among other issues — if its mother has diabetes during the prenatal period. Gestational diabetes also increases the chances a mother-to-be will have pre-eclampsia, a blood pressure condition that can be life-threatening to both mother and child, says study author Jon Nakamoto, medical director for Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute.

"There's good recent data showing even a slight inability to control blood sugar during pregnancy has a direct impact on your baby and your health," says Nakamoto.

The study, reported in this week's Obstetrics & Gynecology, is based on an analysis of more than 900,000 pregnant women by one of the nation's largest laboratories, Quest Diagnostics.

Researchers also found that 19% of women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were not screened for diabetes in the six months after giving birth.

It's another alarming result, because as many as half of women with gestational diabetes will go on to develop diabetes long-term, says Nakamoto, who is also an associate clinical professor at Rady Children's Hospital and the University of California San Diego. Medical guidelines recommend they get a follow-up screening between weeks six and 12 postpartum, he says.

In separate research out last week, more than a quarter million women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals in 2008 had pre-existing diabetes or developed it during their pregnancy, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. That's 6.4% of the 4.2 million women who gave birth in that year.

Ellen Landsberger, associate professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and obstetrical director of the diabetes center of excellence at Montefiore Medical Center in New York says she is not surprised by the low screening numbers after a mother has given birth. "It's been very difficult getting patients screened post-partum," she says.

Gestational diabetes can be treated by controlling high blood sugar by eating a healthier diet, exercising, and sometimes taking insulin.

"The message is also to continue lifestyle modifications you make during pregnancy afterwards — for the mother and her family. This is a familial, ongoing issue," Landsberger says.

Breastfeeding may boost schoolboys' brains

Wendy Oddy at the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research in Subiaco, Western Australia, and colleagues, examined whether having been breastfed affected the test scores of over 1000 10-year-olds.

Studies have suggested that children who were breastfed have higher IQs than those who were not, but few separated out boys and girls. Mothers who breastfeed are on average wealthier and more educated, so Oddy's team accounted for these factors.

Boys who were mainly breastfed for at least six months scored 9 per cent higher in mathematics and writing tests, 7 per cent higher in spelling and 6 per cent higher in reading, compared with boys fed with formula milk or breastfed for shorter periods. There were no significant differences in results for girls.

"We know that breast milk contains the optimal nutrients for development of the brain and central nervous system," says Oddy, but the gender differences were surprising.

Oddy points out that other studies have suggested boys are more vulnerable to stress and adversity during critical periods of brain development. She speculates this could be because girls seem to be protected by higher levels of estrogen during childhood. She says the improved academic performance of boys could be explained by estrogen in breast milk having similar neuro-protective effects.

Some studies have suggested that fatty acids uniquely present in breast milk explain research showing that it can help babies become more intelligent. Whether or not these fatty acids help in boosting IQ may be linked to the presence of certain gene variants involved in their processing.

A large randomized trial conducted by Michael Kramer at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, concluded that prolonged breastfeeding was linked to higher IQ and academic ratings by teachers in Belarussian children at age 6, but found no sex differences.

"These results add to the evidence that longer and exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for cognitive development," says Kramer.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells: A Fast-Moving Science

Could cord blood stem cells be used to help treat the wounds of a burn victim or restore hearing in a deaf child? As Heather Brown, CBR's Vice President of Scientific and Medical Affairs, explains in a recent interview, these treatment areas and others are being explored in rapidly-advancing research.

"Cord blood stem cells really are so versatile that anything is possible," she says.  “It’s really an incredibly fast-moving science.”

Heather explains that while cord blood stem cells have been used for decades to treat a variety of blood disorders, immune diseases and cancers, they are now under investigation to regenerate and repair damaged cells outside of the blood and immune system.  Heart disease and brain injury are two other areas of focus.

You can read Heather’s full interview with Questional, a website highlighting experts and public figures in technology and science.

Vince Vaughn and Wife Welcome a Daughter!

It's a girl for Vince Vaughn and his wife Kyla Weber!

Locklyn Kyla Vaughn was born on Saturday, December 18 in the Wedding Crashers star's hometown of Chicago. She weighed 7lbs and measured 20 inches long.

"Both of them couldn't be happier to welcome their sweet little girl into their family!" a source close to the pair tells People.

Locklyn is the first child for Vince and Kyla, who tied the knot in an intimate ceremony last January.

Source

Excess weight loss in breastfed newborns study

Giving expectant mothers large amounts of fluids during delivery could affect the success of breastfeeding, a new study by researchers at UC Davis suggests.

The study, published online in the journal Pediatrics, found a high proportion of breastfed newborns who received little or no supplemental formula lost an excessive amount of weight. Normally, newborns are expected to lose up to 10 percent of their birth weight in the first days of life. But nearly eighteen percent, nearly one in five, of these infants lost more than 10 percent of their birth weight.

"Under usual circumstances, excess weight loss is considered abnormal and can increase the risk to the infant of problems such as jaundice and re-hospitalization. Babies who lose an excessive amount of weight may need to be supplemented with formula," said Caroline Chantry, professor of pediatrics in the UC Davis School of Medicine and an internationally recognized breastfeeding expert. "Typically, infants lose excess weight because they are feeding poorly or the mother has delayed onset of breast milk production.
However, the findings of the study suggest that some of the infants' weight loss may be unrelated to feeding."

"[A] particularly noteworthy finding is that the prevalence of excessive weight loss was significantly related to maternal intra-partum fluid balance," the study said. " [The rate] of excessive weight loss more than tripled when positive maternal fluid balance exceeded 200 milliliters per hour" during labor and delivery, the study found.

"We don't know for sure why these children lost an excessive amount of weight. But our hypothesis is that they were born with more extra fluid than normal and so some of the weight they lost was fluid," Chantry said. The authors said some mothers receive intravenous fluids during delivery to protect them against a drop in blood pressure in response to epidural anesthesia. The babies may have lost more weight by voiding some of the extra fluid their mothers received, the authors said.

The breastfeeding study was conducted in 316 diverse, first-time diverse, suburban and urban mothers and their babies at UC Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, Calif., between January 2006 and December 2007. The mothers were enrolled between their 32nd and 40th weeks of gestation. All the women gave birth to one child; no multiple births were included in the study.

The study participants were visited within 24 hours by lactation specialists to study their breastfeeding behaviors and problems, formula and pacifier use and the onset of milk production, or lactogenesis. The babies were weighed at days three and seven days either in the home, the hospital or at a follow up clinic visit.Some 134, or 42 percent, of the mothers breastfed their infants exclusively during the first three days after delivery; 95, or 30 percent, of infants received minimal formula supplementation.

The authors also note that previous studies have found an association between pain management for women, such as epidurals, and excess weight loss among their infants. Medicated deliveries were nearly "universal" among the study's participants, precluding evaluation of this association.

"Avoiding excess weight loss is a good thing, Chantry said. We do know of maternity practices that increase breastfeeding success, such as early initiation of breastfeeding. It will be important to determine if less
aggressive fluid administration during labor, when appropriate, lowers the incidence of the number of infants experiencing excess weight loss."

"We need to better understand the significance of weight loss when mothers have received a lot of intra-partum fluids. It may be that more weight loss in this setting is acceptable. We know that in-hospital formula supplementation greatly increases the risk of early breastfeeding cessation even when the mothers are committed to breastfeeding. We need to better learn exactly who needs the supplementation and how we can mitigate the negative effects of supplementation for those who do need them," she said.

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